Free essays and research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. Need a custom Essay? Check the price and Order Now! Often missing from discussions of deviance and crime is the notion of gender.
Deviance Essay Deviance Essay Deviance was originally conceived as sin. Erikson showed that deviance was as much about the behaviors of the labelers of deviance, and an expression of their fears and concerns, as it was about the behavior designated deviant and subsequently demonized.
The sociology of deviance addresses how mainstream or powerful groups within society deal with those whose behavior exists on its margins; the functional or dysfunctional role these behaviors, individuals, and groups play, and their perceived threat to social order; and what to do about both deviants and deviance.
In contrast, critics challenge the legitimacy and authority of those who use their power to define normality and to marginalize and stigmatize others through mechanisms of social control used in the name of maintaining order.
These movements began to describe, then to celebrate human differences and marginalized voices. The Study of Deviance The study of deviance draws on concepts and theories from sociology, social psychology, and social constructionism. Sociology studies social interaction between individuals and groups, but locates these interactions in a wider social context that is shaped by social forces such as class, race, and gender.
Social constructionism sees the social world as an outcome of social interaction among humans in groups and other social networks whereby meaningful realities are created from attention to, and investment in, making differences and identifying similarities, and then evaluating these as good or bad.
They are seen as social beings and as a human agents who can act individually and collectively. From the The study of female deviance criminology essay constructionist perspective, human agents are energized to act, but are not fully free to act outside of the discursive social frameworks that serve as the medium for their interaction and expression.
Life is a series of interactive experiences of the physical world and of the socially meaningful world of others, mediated by the social and institutional forms that humans have pre-constituted.
Thus, social reality is the concreteness of the physical world, mediated by the social and the socially constructed world of meaning that humans continuously create and reproduce, sometimes as closely replicated forms of that which already exists, sometimes as variations and transformation of that emergent reality.
It documents the ways that groups, communities, and even whole societies ban or otherwise sanction the behavior, appearances, ideas, and lifestyles that they find offensive. Deviance is also concerned with exploring the forms of social control that offended, indignant, or fearful groups bring to bear on the perceived offensive behaviors and on those people who engage in deviance; and how these groups document the practices, limits, rules, and sanctions they develop to contain, limit, or prevent such behavior.
In addition to exploring mechanisms of control the study of deviance is concerned with identifying the nature, characteristics, motives, and practices of those audiences and activists who engage in control practices. Agents of social control may employ a variety of mechanisms of control, such as ostracism and shaming to mobilizing public bans sanctioned by law.
Shaming involves identifying the persons committing deviant acts as having deviant identities defined by their engagement in that activity rather than by the totality of their humanity. Thus, those who practice deviant behaviors become identified, or labeled, by control agents as deviants and are thus reduced to a caricature of who they may be as persons.
Where no choice is involved deviance is seen as acquired e. Where deviance is chosen it is seen as achieved e. Moral condemnation accrues in the case of achieved deviance, but not in the case of acquired deviance; stigma, however, accompanies both designations.
For Lemert the difference between primary and secondary deviance was not simply quantity or extent of engagement but the reason for that engagement.
For primary deviants there were a wide range of motives and the behavior was simply one of many possible actions they may take. Thus, the study of deviance also examines deviant social organization and subcultures that form as a result of the marginalization of deviants and their exclusion from the nondeviant social world of the wider society based on their deviant behavior.
It explores their interactions with nondeviants, their private and sometimes secret lives, and the effects of the labeling and stigmatizing process on their abilities to change their behavior, as well as the resistance they can develop in relation to the moral condemnation by others.
Studies also explore alternative lifestyles and political opposition to mainstream values. The study of deviance and social control has been developed within interactionist and interpretationalist tradition largely within sociology, but also within social psychology.
Its objectives of study are why people create rules, why people break rules, and why and how people try to control rule-breakers.
In order to conduct the kind of research that will understand such meaning and contexts, deviance researchers have typically used methods that are similar to those anthropologists use to study other cultures. Thus, they have used qualitative methods, including ethnography, interview, and case study, to gather data on their subjects, and in the United States the primary outlet to disseminate this research has been the journal Deviant Behavior.
Recent developments in studies of deviance have explored whether deviance studies are relevant to the 21st century, or whether they are a hangover from the s and 20th-century protest movements. Scholars have also explored depth studies of various stages of 1 the deviance process, such as analysis of panics; and 2 the stigmatization process and the ways processes of shaming may distinguish between shaming behavior and shaming people.
Studies of elite deviance cases, such as Enron or Bernie Madoff, raise a whole different set of questions about how deviant behavior can start and become sustained. As in the case of the financial collapse in the United States init shows that collusion with social control agents, in this case federal regulators, can produce societal, even global harm on an unprecedented scale.
All of which enables society to reframe how deviance processes are both ubiquitous but also different in their impact and consequences.
As well as expanding into the realm of crimes of the powerful, deviance studies have explored the idea of positive deviance PD. This appears to be a contradiction, but it is based on the idea that statistical deviance from a norm implies both negative and positive evaluation of statistical difference.
The field of positive deviance studies emanated from the field of nutrition and health studies, and later, business and organizational change that seeks uncommon solutions to recurrent economic, social, and community problems.
The view taken by such organizations is that conventional norm-conforming behavior is ill equipped to deal with anomalies or significant organizational stagnation or challenges.
Importantly, while positive deviance can run into bureaucratic resistance from the existing system and processes, it is also able to be incorporated into the mainstream more readily than conventional deviance. The study of deviance can also create ethical dilemmas for its researchers.There is an increasing body of research examining girls and women engaged in deviance and crime (e.g., female gang members), but most of the contemporary research continues to examine girls and women engaged in traditional deviant and criminal behaviors (e.g., status offenses, prostitution) and/or limits discussions of women and deviance to women’s status as victims.
Social Deviance And Social Stratification - Introduction to Sociology Reflection Essay: Week Two I found this past chapters describing our groups and networks in society, social deviance, and social stratification to be very interesting.
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Published: Mon, 5 Dec Deviance is a term used by society to define behaviors that differ from the everyday social norm, this means that majority of people in a society must agree or conform to a certain action or behavior. Aug 04, · Critical criminology is a study of crime using a conflict perspective which considers the causes and contexts for crime, deviance and disorder; it has also been known as radical criminology and the new criminology.
This perspective combines a wide range of concerns from across the more radical approaches, such as Marxism and feminism. - Prostitution as a Form of Deviance In sociology, the term deviance refers to all violations of social rules, regardless of their seriousness (Essentials of Sociology ).
Deviance is an individual or organizational behavior that violates societal norms and is usually accompanied by . In this essay, I would like to discuss four main subjects that we need to study in criminology: analyses the cause of crime, crime prevention, explore the media presentation of crime and understand the formation and application of law (Walklate, ).