Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers. In the current version, punctuation is simpler only commas and periods separate the elementsand information about the source is kept to the basics.
Issues Any project involves a number of issues and problematic areas that must be addressed in order for the project to be implemented smoothly. The issues are the points of discussion or dispute throughout the project lifecycle.
They cover any concern, query, request for change, or anything else that requires a resolution during the project.
Unresolved issues may cause project failure. The Issues section of a TOR template should highlight key issues to be studied and disputed at every stage of the project lifecycle.
Usually TOR includes a range of evaluation criteria to be used for issue analysis and solving. Here are generic issue evaluation criteria for most projects: Methodology The implementation methodology of a project provides a set of broad principles and rules from which specific procedures will be derived in order to define how to carry out the project in a cost-effective way.
It describes the main methods of project implementation. The Methodology section of a Project Terms of Reference template should therefore include a description of the following items: Key phases of the project implementation process The required level of stakeholder involvement that ensures smooth implementation The content and duration of project activities and tasks The information collection tools to be used throughout the project for monitoring purposes Data analysis rules 5.
Expertise The expertise needed for doing a project defines a set of professional requirements for the individuals and teams involved in project implementation.
It will be the basis for team building, including training and skill assessment. The Expertise section of a Project Terms of Reference template should identify the following: The type of work involved in the project The type of skills and abilities required to do project work The exact number of individuals involved, including a description of their qualifications, experience, and other professional attributes The period of engagement of each team member A description of the duties and responsibility per teammate The relationship between the team members, including leadership roles 6.
Reporting Reports provide valued information about project performance over a certain period. Reporting is a process that starts once a project is launched and continues until the project is completed and its product is handed over.
Reporting requirements will define how to write and submit project reports and what information to include. The Reporting Requirements section of a Terms of Reference template should clearly specify the requirements for the reporting process, and might include the details of: Table of contents for project reports Rules for composing annexes The language to be used in reports Computer software programmes to be used Submission dates People responsible for reporting and approving Other sufficient information, such as number of copies to be created, responsibilities for report production and presentation, etc.
Work Plan A work plan is a kind of strategy that aims to help solve problems throughout a project and boost employee drive and focus. It determines what actions need to be taken to start, implement, and complete the project within a specified time period and under defined budget.
It is often used as a general guide for developing a project implementation plan. It should therefore include a summary of the anticipated work and time schedule, which are based upon the following: An analysis of the issues, in terms of the evaluation criteria The proposed implementation methodology.Consulting on the Side: How to Start a Part-Time Consulting Business While Still Working at Your Full-Time Job [Mary F.
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