About this Typology About this Typology This typology breaks down the traditional boundaries between the nonprofit and private sectors and draws definition to this new institutional animal--part business-part social--the social enterprise. In doing so, the typology explores how institutions have combined a mix of social values and goals with commercial business practices and how they have come up with ownership models, income and capitalization strategies, and unique management and service systems designed to maximize social value. The illustrative typology classifies different models of social enterprise in order to navigate readers through the currently ill-defined, diverse and dynamic landscape of this emerging field. This typology is an outgrowth of a paper commissioned by the Inter-American Development Bank in entitled:
However, Medical fasting differs from Islamic fasting, and contrary to popular Muslim beliefs, Islamic fasting, unlike Medical fasting, has numerous adverse effects.
As we will explain here, Islamic fasting has significant harmful effects on health, national economy and productivity, crime rate, public safety and social behavior. Health effects include heat stress, dehydration, migraines and, for lactating women, the nutritional make-up of their milk, amongst others.
What is Islamic Fasting? The salient features of Islamic fasting are: For 30 days every lunar year during the month of Ramadanwaking up before dawn and eating and drinking to prepare for the fast binge eating is a common habit.
Some Muslims claim eating a small amount of food is the correct Islamic way however we cannot function for the whole day by eating only a small amount of food at the time of dawn. This would affect our performance even more during the day.
Effects on Health In a recent study done on the Arab world, diseases linked to cholesterol and diabetes increased by Dehydration One study finds that incidences of dehydration increase during the month of Ramadan: Restricted fluid intake, leading to disturbance in the fluid balance, is likely to cause these conditions.
In the initial stages of dehydration, the clinical signs are tachycardia, tiredness and malaise, headaches and nausea. Dehydration is indicated by the increase of several serum biochemical parameters El-Hazmi et al.
The increase in uric acid, however, should especially be noted El-Ati et al, ; El-Hazmi et al. During Ramadan, however, reports show that the increase in uric acid does not excessively deviate from the normal range and studies have not reported clinical gout El-Hazmi et al.
Increased uric acid is, therefore, unlikely to affect healthy individuals. But Jewish researchers in the US and Israel have suggested how to help prevent the problem. Working with colleagues Dr. Igal Plecht and Dr. Gal Ifergan of the Beersheba hospital, Abu-Salameh studied 32 Beduin who suffered from migraine attacks during the Ramadan fast last year and compared the statistics to an ordinary month without the fast as a control.
Migraines were much more common in women than men; three-quarters of the women complained of migraine while fasting, compared to a much lower figure among the men.
The Soroka study was published recently in the Journal of Headache and Pain. Abu-Salameh said that he has gotten migraine headaches during Ramadan, and has treated Beduin who came to his clinic complaining about severe headaches. He noted that the medical literature has almost ignored the phenomenon until now.
Drescher of Hartford Hospital in Connecticut and colleagues at Sheba and Shaare Zedek Medical Centers in Israel recently suggested that otherwise-healthy Muslims suffering from migraine attacks during the Ramadan fast ask their doctors for a prescription for etoricoxib commercial name Arcoxia to prevent the headaches that come with fasting.
Abstract During Ramadan, Moslems are required strictly to avoid fluids and nourishment from dawn to sunset. Heat stress during such abstinence represents a substantial health hazard.
In the Federal Republic of Germany FRG where numerous Moslems, particularly of Turkish origin, perform heat work and other heavy labour, we observed moderate to severe health disturbances in such labourers during Ramadan, e.
The severe dehydration of these workers was demonstrated by substantial increases in their hematocrit, serum protein, urea, creatinine, uric acid and electrolyte imbalance. Because of the evidence of the substantial health hazard to Islamic workers in such situations, we have strongly urged employers to refrain from assigning Islamic workers to heat work or heavy daytime work during Ramadan; we have therefore limited systematic studies of health problems during Ramadan to persons performing only moderate work.
Even under these conditions signs of dehydration were found in the 32 labourers monitored. Some of these labourers also had to interrupt their observance of Ramadan due to health problems, e.
In light of the observed potentially harmful pathophysiological effects, the danger of dehydration of Islamic workers due to heat work during Ramadan should be taken very seriously. Weight Fluctuation The following study takes a look at the significant fluctuations in the weight of individuals that occurs during the month of Ramadan, primarily as a result of the metabolic changes that occur in the body.The tricky one would be comparing the costs of the drug war.
Compare alcohol, which is a hard drug and hugely harmful, but so stupidly easy to make that banning it is handing buckets of free money to organised crime, blindness and brain damage from methanol in badly-distilled spirits, etc..
I do concur that busting people’s asses for driving while stoned is a very important social bright. Socioeconomic effects on farmers in a volatile Ethiopian coffee market and the promise of the Fair Trade movement Coffee and Ethiopia have shared a lengthy and highly tumultuous relationship.
According to some, their history dates back to the fifteenth century, but it is widely acknowledged that extensive trade didn’t begin until the late . The incorporation of these resources into the design of work environments should, ideally, be combined with organizational and facilities management policies that maximize the health- .
When coffee prices fall, the economic and social effects are profound. Price Control and World Trade Coffee price declines can be devastating for farmers abroad, but in the United States, the world's largest consumer of coffee, such fluctuations are barely noticed.
Sick’s article clearly states the general effects of fair trade coffee on the producers and also shows the specific outcomes in Costa Rica. Kruger, Diana I. Coffee production effects on child labor and schooling in .
According to the Specialty Coffee Association of America, in 16% of adults in the United States drank specialty coffee daily; the number of retail specialty coffee locations, including cafés, kiosks, coffee carts and retail roasters, amounted to 17, and total sales were $ billion in