In lieu of the class on Thursday, March 28, the make-up session will be held The primary purpose of this course is to allow the participants to consider principles and practices used in the teaching of English to speakers of other languages. After introducing general considerations for curriculum design and assessment, the course will focus on pedagogical approaches used to help foreign language learners develop the four language macro skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing, as well as, two linguistic competencies vocabulary and grammar. Discussion of theoretical issues how language users process the various macro-skills and how they acquire proficiency in them and practical issues e.
The Acquisition-Learning distinction is the most fundamental of all the hypotheses in Krashen's theory and the most widely known among linguists and language practitioners.
According to Krashen there are two independent systems of second language performance: The 'acquired system' or 'acquisition' is the product of a subconscious process very similar to the process children undergo when they acquire their first language.
It requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act. The "learned system" or "learning" is the product of formal instruction and it comprises a conscious process which results in conscious knowledge 'about' the language, for example knowledge of grammar rules.
According to Krashen 'learning' is less important than 'acquisition'. The Monitor hypothesis explains the relationship between acquisition and learning and defines the influence of the latter on the former.
The monitoring function is the practical result of the learned grammar. According to Krashen, the acquisition system is the utterance initiator, while the learning system performs the role of the 'monitor' or the 'editor'. The 'monitor' acts in a planning, editing and correcting function when three specific conditions are met: It appears that the role of conscious learning is somewhat limited in second language performance.
According to Krashen, the role of the monitor is - or should be - minor, being used only to correct deviations from "normal" speech and to give speech a more 'polished' appearance. Krashen also suggests that there is individual variation among language learners with regard to 'monitor' use.
He distinguishes those learners that use the 'monitor' all the time over-users ; those learners who have not learned or who prefer not to use their conscious knowledge under-users ; and those learners that use the 'monitor' appropriately optimal users.
An evaluation of the person's psychological profile can help to determine to what group they belong. Usually extroverts are under-users, while introverts and perfectionists are over-users. Lack of self-confidence is frequently related to the over-use of the "monitor".
For a given language, some grammatical structures tend to be acquired early while others late. Krashen however points out that the implication of the natural order hypothesis is not that a language program syllabus should be based on the order found in the studies.
In fact, he rejects grammatical sequencing when the goal is language acquisition. The Input hypothesis is Krashen's attempt to explain how the learner acquires a second language — how second language acquisition takes place.
The Input hypothesis is only concerned with 'acquisition', not 'learning'. Finally, the fifth hypothesis, the Affective Filter hypothesis, embodies Krashen's view that a number of 'affective variables' play a facilitative, but non-causal, role in second language acquisition.
Krashen claims that learners with high motivation, self-confidence, a good self-image, and a low level of anxiety are better equipped for success in second language acquisition. Low motivation, low self-esteem, and debilitating anxiety can combine to 'raise' the affective filter and form a 'mental block' that prevents comprehensible input from being used for acquisition.Second Language Acquisition - Learner’s Profile.
INTRODUCTION The person that I have chosen for this assignment, in order to analyse his performance in English, is called John and he is 23 years old.
English Language Arts Standards Download the standards Print this page The Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects (“the standards”) represent the next generation of K–12 standards designed to prepare all students for success in college, career, and life by the time they graduate from high school.
COST Action IS Aim of COST Action IS Second language learners often produce language patterns resembling those of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI).
Appendix B: Choosing a Program Model** There are several variables that influence a district's decision to develop a specific type of program for the instruction of English-language learners (such as transitional bilingual, maintenance bilingual, two-way bilingual, structured/sheltered immersion, or .
Second Language Acquisition Theories Jessica Bogunovich November 10, Second Language Acquisition Theories According to the United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (), there are approximately million English language learners (ELL) in American public schools.
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