Consequences of the "Unbonded" Child and Gender Inequality. James Prescott is a developmental neurpsychologist and cross cultural psychologist who received his doctorate in psychology from McGill University, Montreal, P. He was the recipient of the "Outstanding Contributions to Psychology Award," Maryland Psychological Association ; and the Cine Golden Eagle Award, for his contributions, as Scientific Director, of the award winning Time-Life film, "Rock A Bye Baby" ; and has given expert testimony on the origins of human violence, particularly domestic violence, before the Senate of Canada, the U.
Childbirth Pregnant women who use substances such as cocaine, heroin, marijuana, methadone, methamphetamine, and other addictive substances put themselves and their babies at great risk; however, there is increasing evidence that even substances such Prenatal substance abuse essay alcohol and cigarettes, which are commonly thought of as less dangerous than the previously mentioned substances, are extremely harmful to the newborn.
Some forms of treatment have been proven effective in lowering the risks of these adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, many factors influence treatment effectiveness. Treatment providers should be educated about the special accommodations required for pregnant women.
Prenatal Developmental Issues That Begin with Substance Abuse Pregnancy is a beautiful experience that will be the beginning of the shaping and development of an individual, the preparation period for bringing a new being into the world.
Unfortunately, this sacred period of time is not immune to tragedy, mistakes, and heartache, especially when addiction or even casual substance use is involved.
Pregnant women are not only eating for two, but are also damaging two bodies and souls when they choose to abuse substances during pregnancy. Pregnant women who use substances such as cocaine, heroin, marijuana, methadone, methamphetamine, and other addictive substances put themselves and their babies at great risk; however, there is increasing evidence that even substances such as alcohol and cigarettes, which Prenatal substance abuse essay commonly thought of as less dangerous than the previously mentioned substances, are extremely harmful to the newborn Feldman, Therefore, it is common for women to use substances before they are even aware that they are pregnant, and by one month damage could have already been done to development of the fetus.
Additionally, pregnancy is often a consequence of failed judgment during a period of substance abuse, and use of more than one substance is the norm among the substance abusing population Kurgans, Substance use and abuse during pregnancy can have significant adverse affects on the baby to include premature birth, miscarriage, low birth weight, and many other possible cognitive and behavioral issues; however, some forms of treatment have been proven successful in lowering the risk of these issues.
Possible Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: Illicit and Licit Substance Effects Abstinence from illicit substances as well as harmful licit substances is necessary due to proven correlation of substance abuse during pregnancy with adverse pregnancy outcomes.
The risk for placental abruption is also higher among drug abusers, meaning that they are more likely to have a portion of placenta pull away from its original attachment to the uterine wall. In a healthy pregnancy, abruption would happen after the baby is born; when abruption occurs while the baby is still in utero, there is not adequate blood flow, oxygen, or nourishment for the baby.
This means that the risk of birth defects and miscarriage is extremely high Dodd et al, pp.
Another risk for addicted pregnant women is that the newborn baby can suffer from withdrawal. Also, a study reporting specifically on methamphetamine use during pregnancy found that heavy methamphetamine use was associated with lower arousal, more lethargy, and increased physiological stress Smith et al,pp.
In addition to these effects of substance abuse during pregnancy that are noticeable immediately after birth, mothers may also be putting their children at risk for longer term complications. None of the children were reported to have special educational needs other than minimal extra support from their teachers at school Topley et al, One pattern that these researchers found was that there were significantly less concerns about these issues when there was a record that the child had seen a health professional in the last year Topley et al,pp.
This may be evidence that educational and behavioral issues typically associated with prenatal drug use could be better attributed to the neglect or continued drug use of the parents rather than biological issues that occurred prenatally. This observational study supports previous findings that a safe living environment is essential for all children but especially for children who were exposed to illicit substances prenatally.
Furthermore, a safe living environment can decrease the risks of behavioral and developmental outcomes Topley et al,pp.
Confirming the findings of this study, Martha Kurgans of the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services reports that newborns exposed to substances are at increased risk for poor maternal-child bonding, developmental delays, impaired academic development, neglect, abuse, exposure to violent situations, and unsafe living environments.
This information shows that the consequences of substance abuse during pregnancy can not only affect the child immediately after birth, but can cause developmental delays or environmental challenges that have the potential to follow the child for the rest of its life.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse found that some children of women who smoked during pregnancy showed difficulty with processing auditory information. More importantly, studies conducted on rats showed that this can happen very quickly, with rats showing auditory processing issues after only five days of exposure to nicotine.
In instances when the mother used cigarettes during the first few days of her third trimester, even when she is only intermittently using cigarettes, the nicotine exposure can cause serious long term auditory processing damage NIDA, Even more concerning information regarding nicotine exposure prenatally is the finding that it can affect the likelihood that the child will become addicted to nicotine in he future.
Arnold Mann states that while nicotine exposure does not increase the risk of the child initially experimenting with cigarette use, it does increase the risk that the child will become addicted to nicotine if they do experiment. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration reports that no amount of alcohol consumption has been proven safe during pregnancy, and adds that prenatal alcohol exposure harms about one in every babies born each year.
This is in contrast with recommendations given by doctors in decades past, as doctors used to be of the opinion that the occasional drink would allow the pregnant woman to relax and would not cause harm SAMHSA, Additionally, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is the leading cause of babies born with mental retardation other than hereditary causes.
Furthermore, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is not seen more commonly in any one socioeconomic level, with women at every level having given birth to children with the syndrome SAMHSA, Even though alcohol and nicotine are legal substances, they have been proven very harmful to newborns who are exposed to them prenatally, even in very small doses.Essay on Prenatal Substance Abuse Words 4 Pages Substance abuse during pregnancy can have a negative force on the health and wellness of not only the fetus, but that of the mother.
Union Reporters offer the best information and opportunities for union members, city and government workers and all military personnel.
Join our community. Prenatal drug abuse is a very tragic, yet preventable issue in our society. For a pregnant woman, drug abuse is doubly dangerous. Drugs may harm her own health, interfering with her ability to support the pregnancy/5(1).
The first time Ashley McGuire had a baby, she and her husband had to wait 20 weeks to learn its sex.
By her third, they found out at 10 weeks with a blood test. Results from a new study may lead to approval of what could be the first drug that ameliorates potentially deadly reactions in children with severe peanut allergies.
Prenatal Substance Abuse - Substance abuse during pregnancy can have a negative force on the health and wellness of not only the fetus, but that of the mother.
The harmful effects of medications, alcohol and illegal drugs on an unborn child can be devastating and can have significant consequences to its use. Essay Topics Plagiarism Donate .