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Idiophones of Islamic Africa are mainly those of the Middle East or derivations thereof. Outsize hollow clappers shaped like a dumbbell sliced lengthwise are clicked by Moroccan singers, who hold a pair in each hand. An inverted… History It is widely acknowledged that African music has undergone frequent and decisive changes throughout the centuries.
What is termed traditional music today is probably very different from African music in former times. Nor has African music in the past been rigidly linked to specific ethnic groups.
The individual musician, his style and creativity, have always played an important role. In ancient times the musical cultures of sub- Saharan Africa extended into North Africa. Between circa and bc, climatic changes in the Sahara, with a marked wet trend, extended the flora and fauna of the savanna into the southern Sahara and its central highlands.
During this period, human occupation of the Sahara greatly increased, and, along rivers and small lakes, Neolithic, or New Stone Agecultures with a so-called aquatic lifestyle extended from the western Sahara into the Nile River valley.
The aquatic cultures began to break up gradually between and bc, once the peak of the wet period had passed. The wet climate became more and more restricted to shrunken lakes and rivers and, to a greater extent, to the region of the upper Nile.
Today remnants survive perhaps in the Lake Chad area and in the Nile swamps. One is a vivid dance scene discovered in by the French ethnologist Henri Lhote in the Tassili-n-Ajjer plateau of Algeria. Attributed on stylistic grounds to the Saharan period of the Neolithic hunters c. The body adornment and movement style are reminiscent of dance styles still found in many African societies.
Rock painting of a dance performance, Tassili-n-Ajjer, Algeria, attributed to the Saharan period of Neolithic hunters c. Jean-Dominique Lajoux Some of the earliest sources on African music are archaeological.
Although musical instruments made of vegetable materials have not survived in the deposits of sub-Saharan climatic zones, archaeological source material on Nigerian music has been supplied by the representations of musical instruments on stone or terra-cotta from Ife, Yorubaland.
These representations show considerable agreement with traditional accounts of their origins. The double iron clapperless bell seems to have preceded the talking drum.
Pellet bells and tubular bells with clappers were known by the 15th century.
Other archaeological finds relating to music include iron bells excavated in the Katanga Shaba region of Congo Kinshasa and at several sites in Zimbabwe. Benin bronze plaques represent a further, almost inexhaustible source for music history, since musical instruments—such as horns, bells, drums, and even bow lutes—are often depicted on them in ceremonial contexts.Introduction.
The process of desegregation poses a challenge that is as pertinent internationally as it is in South Africa, as evident in the centrality of questions of race, racism, citizenship and diversity to school systems internationally. Training for Change is a training and capacity building organization for activists and organizers.
We believe strong training and group facilitation is vital to movement building . African music: African music, the musical sounds and practices of all indigenous peoples of Africa, including the Berber in the Sahara and the San (Bushmen) and Khoikhoin (Hottentot) in Southern Africa.
The music of European settler communities and that of Arab North Africa are not included in the present.
The concept of “interlocking systems of oppression”—a precursor to “intersectionality”— was introduced in a social movement context by the Combahee River Collective (CRC) in pamphlet form in Addressing Black lesbians’ and feminists’ experiences.
This essay brings together intersectionality and institutional approaches to health inequalities, suggesting an integrative analytical framework that accounts for the complexity of the intertwined influence of both individual social positioning and institutional stratification on health.
About the Incredible Years® Series The Incredible Years ® Series is a set of interlocking, comprehensive, and developmentally based programs targeting parents, teachers and children. The training programs that compose Incredible Years ® Series are guided by developmental theory on the role of multiple interacting risk and protective factors in the development of conduct problems.