Background[ edit ] The ratio of Christian population to Muslim population remains a matter of dispute, but the city was a multicultural and cosmopolitan center until September
Are Russian Jews Descended from the Khazars? Unauthorized reproduction of this page is prohibited. This essay presents the pros and cons of the controversial "Khazar theory" of Eastern European Jewish origins and will attempt to provide a likely middle-ground solution to the question.
Unlike other treatments of the question, this essay uses recent discoveries, is meant to be objective, and is fully sourced so that you can be guaranteed of the authenticity of the information. Although subsequent genetic evidence found no trace of Khazarian-related ancestry in any modern Jewish population, I'm keeping this essay online for the time being so you can analyze different writers' arguments for and against this proposition.
Many of these writers made naive simplifications. The argument I committed to paper in or for publication in that Eastern European Jewish ancestry "is more complex than previously envisioned" has stood the test of time better than those other writers' arguments since we now have genetic evidence of Armenian, Greek, Italian, French, Berber, Slavic, and Chinese introgressions into the Eastern European Jewish gene pool whose core element is Israelite.
It just happens that a Khazarian element is missing. Evidence in favor of the Khazar theory According to most historical sources, Judaism was widespread among the Khazar inhabitants of the Khazar kingdom. Archaeological evidence, however, has not yet corroborated this.
The findings described below, some of which are more conclusive than others, add strength to the argument that there were many Jews residing in eastern Europe prior to the immigration of German, Austrian, Bohemian, Spanish, and Portugese Jews into Poland and Hungary.
Judaism is almost always noted in our medieval documentary sources as having been the most important religion in the Khazar kingdom. It is often the only religion cited when referring to the Khazars.
And the Hebrew script is noted as being the script of 10th century Khazars.
Here are some examples: The Bulgars, however, who are of the same seven tribes [as the Khazars], are now becoming baptized [into Christianity].
But they have been Judaized recently. This happened recently in the days of the Abbasids For this was a man who came single-handedly to a king of great rank and to a very spirited people, and they were converted by him without any recourse to violence and the sword.
And they took upon themselves the difficult obligations enjoined by the law of the Torah, such as circumcision, the ritual ablutions, washing after a discharge of the semen, the prohibition of work on the Sabbath and during the feasts, the prohibition of eating the flesh of forbidden animals according to this religion, and so on.
We, however, believe in the one God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. If God had loved you and your law, you would not be scattered throughout foreign lands. Or do you wish us Rus'ians to suffer the same fate?
They disclosed their identity to them, embraced their religion, were circumcized in the cave, and then returned to their country, eager to learn the Jewish law. They kept their conversion secret, however, until they found an opportunity of disclosing the fact gradually to a few of their special friends.The Coming Software Apocalypse.
A small group of programmers wants to change how we code—before catastrophe strikes. The Case for Reparations. Two hundred fifty years of slavery. Ninety years of Jim Crow. Sixty years of separate but equal.
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Paul Kingsnorth is a writer and poet living in Cumbria, England. He is the author of several books, including the poetry collection Kidland and his fictional debut The Wake, winner of the Gordon Burn Prize and the Bookseller Book of the Year Award.
Kingsnorth is the cofounder and director of the Dark Mountain Project, a network of writers, artists, and thinkers. After reading Field Notes from a Catastrophe, I realized that it is in fact a major issue that must be addressed by every community.
In this essay I will argue that it is our job as the human race to do all that we can to take care of our planet and reduce the amount of global warming that humans are responsible for. World War Three, by Mistake Harsh political rhetoric, combined with the vulnerability of the nuclear command-and-control system, has made the risk of global catastrophe greater than ever.