What is the best Means of Peace? Government is an expedient against Confusion; a Restraint upon all disorder; just Weights and even Balances; that one may not injure another nor himself by Intemperance…No man is Judge in his own Cause, which ends the Confusion and Blood of so many Judges and Executioners.
Chief among these are a number of friends in the Core Humanities Program at Villanova University, where I began work on this volume: I was fortunate to have close by a gifted group of interdisciplinary scholars who exemplified all the virtues of collegiality.
Beth Angell helped with the introduction and assisted in too many ways to mention.
Peter and Sam were themselves, a gift easy to acknowledge but impossible to repay. His life spanned the two great political and religious upheavals in seventeenth-century England: Son of an admiral who served the parliamentarian cause during the Civil Wars and Commonwealth but who made his peace with the restored monarchy afterPenn found himself involved in the turmoil of the s because of his friendship with King James II and his relentless pursuit of religious liberty.
His conversion marked the beginning of a lifelong career as religious controversialist, preacher, writer, and spokesman for the Society of Friends or, as they were commonly known, Quakers.
The Society of Friends had emerged from the religious and political ferment of the English Civil Wars, and their denial of the Trinity, their doctrine of inner light, and their refusal to swear oaths and show social deference instantly attracted charges of anarchism, atheism, and disloyalty.
Not only was he a man of means, but he also put his several imprisonments to good use, writing many tracts defending his particular religion and advocating liberty of conscience as a principle. Penn spent the decade following his conversion writing and traveling throughout England, Europe, and America on behalf of Quaker causes.
He was also increasingly interested in the possibility of founding a colony based on principles of religious freedom. Incalling on an old friendship and debts owed his father by the Crown, Penn received his colonial charter from Charles II. The next year he crossed the Atlantic, and, in the following spring, the first Pennsylvania General Assembly adopted the Frame of Government by which the colony would be ruled for the next ten years.
Although business and legal matters, including a protracted border dispute with Lord Baltimore and activities on behalf of toleration in England, would keep Penn away from Pennsylvania for most of his remaining days, he always considered his colony an attempt to instantiate the principles of political and religious liberty he articulated in his writings.
A series of strokes incapacitated him inand he died six years later. For Penn, religious liberty was part and parcel of English liberty more generally, a fundamental right and a necessary element of legitimate government.
None of his justifications for liberty of conscience was entirely original. But in his synthetic corpus, Penn provides a coherent encapsulation of the many and varied routes to toleration sought by early modern English thinkers and actors.
Insofar as Penn attempted to put his principles into practice in his colonial ventures, the texts reprinted in this volume possess a continuing relevance to scholars not only of English political and religious history but also of American political development, colonial history, and the constitutional foundations of American religious liberty.
The political instability following the death, inof Oliver Cromwell—who had commanded parliamentary forces during the Civil Wars, overseen the execution of Charles I inmilitarily subdued Scotland and Ireland, and ruled as Lord Protector since —had paved the way for the restoration of Charles II and the Stuart monarchy in Formally reestablishing the Anglican supremacy, Parliament passed the Clarendon Code, a series of measures aimed at suppressing religious dissent, between and These acts restricted the rights of independent congregations to assemble, reinstated the Book of Common Prayer, and required assent to its liturgy by all clergy.
Stuart kings after the Restoration, on the other hand, were decidedly more receptive to the idea of religious toleration. The fact that Charles II, who reigned from towas a discreet Catholic, and James II, who reigned from towas an openly practicing one, played no small part in this position.Posts about ‘An Essay towards the Present and Future Peace of Europe by the Establishment of a European Parliament Diet or Estates’ written by beastrabban.
Aug 30, · An Essay towards the Present and Future Peace of Europe by the establishment of an European Dyet, Parliament, or Estates. by William Penn – An essay towards the present and future peace of Europe [William Penn] on kaja-net.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Essay Towards the Present and Future Peace in Europe: By the Establishment of an European Dyet, Parliament or Estates (United Nations Library, Geneva) Facsimile of ed Edition. APA Format. Rare Book Division, The New York Public Library. (). An essay towards the present and future peace of Europe.
Aug 30, · An Essay towards the Present and Future Peace of Europe by the establishment of an European Dyet, Parliament, or Estates. by William Penn –