Conquerors and missionaries felt divinely inspired to "civilize and evangelize" the native peoples of the New World. The attempts to Europeanize and Christianize Mexico led to the devaluation of much of the indigenous culture for the next years.
Back Before the Spanish arrival inMexico was occupied by a large number of Indian groups with very different social and economic systems. In general the tribes in the arid north were relatively small groups of hunters and gatherers who roamed extensive areas of sparsely vegetated deserts and steppes.
These people are often referred to as Chichimecs, though they were a mixture of several linguistically distinctive cultural groups. In the rest of the country the natives were agriculturalists, which allowed the support of dense populations.
A number of these groups developed high civilizations with elaborate urban centers used for religious, political, and commercial purposes. By AD the Toltecs had conquered much of central and southern Mexico and had established their capital at Tula in the Mesa Central.
They also built the city of Teotihuacan near present-day Mexico City. At about the same time, the Zapotecs controlled the Oaxaca Valley and parts of the Southern Highlands. The cities they built at Mitla and Monte Alban remain, though they were taken over by the Mixtecs prior to the arrival of the Spanish.
When the Spanish arrived in central Mexico, the Aztecs controlled most of the Mesa Central through a state tribute system that extracted taxes and political servility from conquered tribal groups.
The Aztecs migrated into the Mesa Central from the north and fulfilled a tribal prophesy by establishing a city where an eagle with a snake in its beak rested on a cactus. This became the national symbol of Mexico and adorns the country's flag and official seal.
The Aztecs founded the city of Tenochtitlan in the early s, and it became the capital of their empire. The Tlaxcalans to the east, the Tarascans on the west, and the Chichimecs in the north were outside the Aztec domain and frequently warred with them.
The nation's name derives from the Aztecs' war god, Mexitli. Cortez first entered the Valley of Mexico on the Mesa Central in after marching overland from Veracruz, the town he had founded on the Gulf Coastal Plain.
With fewer than soldiers and a few horses, the initial conquest of the Aztecs was possible only with the assistance of the large Indian armies Cortez assembled from among the Aztecs' enemies. After a brief initial success at Tenochtitlan, the Spanish were driven from the city on the Noche Triste but returned in to destroy the city and to overwhelm the Aztecs.
Within a short time the rest of central and southern Mexico and much of Central America were conquered from Mexico City. The Spanish usurped the Indian lands and redistributed them among themselves, first as encomiendas, a system of tribute grants, and later as haciendas, or land grants. During the early contact with Indians, millions died from such European diseases as measles and smallpox, for which the natives had no immunity.
Central Mexico did not regain its pre-Columbian population numbers until perhaps Independence Along with other Spanish colonies in the New World, Mexico fought for and gained its independence in the early s.
Padre Hidalgo was hanged in July Hidalgo was succeeded by Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon, another parish priest but a more able leader than his predecessor.The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, or the Spanish–Aztec War (–21), was the conquest of the Aztec Empire by the Spanish Empire within the context of the Spanish colonization of the kaja-net.com was one of the most significant and complex events in world history.
There are multiple 16th-century narratives of the events by Spanish conquerors, their indigenous allies and the defeated. Middle History In his quest to conquer the Aztec empire, the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés entered Hidalgo in The following year he besieged and destroyed the nearby Aztec capital of.
Baybayin. Baybayin is a pre-Spanish Philippine writing system. It is a member of the Brahmic family and is recorded as being in use in the 16th century. Other articles where History of Mexico is discussed: Mexico: Pre-Columbian Mexico: It is assumed that the first inhabitants of Middle America were early American Indians, of Asian derivation, who migrated into the area at some time during the final stage of the Pleistocene Epoch.
The date of their arrival in central Mexico remains speculative. Mexico History Timeline Timeline Description: Mexico's history dates back to pre-Columbian times when it was ruled by some of history's most advanced civilizations.
The North American country ranks fifth in size out of all the countries in the Americas and it is the most populous Spanish . Preconquest Mexico.
Despite Mexico's rich pre-Columbian history, following the Spanish conquest in , the country's new rulers made a concerted attempt to erase all things related to indigenous cultures.